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NIAID work in genomic sequencing further accelerates STD biological research and discovery. NIAID has collected genomic data on STD pathogens and made it available to qualified researchers through public databases. Std test near West Greene Alabama. Recent advances include the genomic sequencing of pathogens responsible for trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human genital ulcer disease (chancroid). The sequencing of genomes allows researchers to read and decipher genetic data that may aid in the development of novel diagnostics, topical medications, and vaccines.

A cornerstone of public health is disease prevention. Tools to prevent STDs, such as vaccines, topical microbicides, and behavioral interventions, are a vital part of protecting the public against infectious diseases. Gardasil, a vaccine against the four most common strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), is an exciting accomplishment in the field of STDs. However, the work to develop safe and effective vaccines against other STDs continues. Most notably are the ongoing clinical trials to evaluate an investigational vaccine to prevent genital herpes. West Greene Std Test.

There are many different kinds of STDs, and the types of treatment are as varied as their symptoms. NIAID supports the development and licensure of vaccines, topical microbicides, and drug treatments, such as antibiotics and antifungals, for the microbes that cause STDs. No STD is harmless. Even the curable ones can cause serious consequences if left untreated. HIV is of particular concern as biological evidence demonstrates the increased likelihood of acquiring and transmitting HIV when STDs are present.

Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and venereal diseases (VD), are infections that are commonly spread by sex , especially vaginal intercourse , anal sex or oral sex Most STIs initially do not cause symptoms. 1 This results in a greater risk of passing the disease on to others. 2 3 Symptoms and signs of disease may include vaginal discharge , penile discharge , ulcers on or around the genitals , and pelvic pain STIs acquired before or during birth may result in poor outcomes for the baby. Some STIs may cause problems with the ability to get pregnant 1

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More than 30 different bacteria , viruses , and parasites can cause STIs. Std test in West Greene, AL. 1 Bacterial STIs include chlamydia , gonorrhea , and syphilis among others. Viral STIs include genital herpes , HIV/AIDS , and genital warts among others. Parasitic STIs include trichomoniasis among others. While usually spread by sex, some STIs can also be spread by non-sexual contact with contaminated blood and tissues, breastfeeding , or during childbirth 1 STI diagnostic tests are easily available in the developed world, but this is often not the case in the developing world. 1

The most effective way of preventing STIs is by not having sex 4 Some vaccinations may also decrease the risk of certain infections including hepatitis B and some types of HPV 4 Safer sex practices such as use of condoms , having a smaller number of sexual partners, and being in a relationship where each person only has sex with the other also decreases the risk. 1 4 Circumcision in males may be effective to prevent some infections. 1 Most STIs are treatable or curable. 1 Of the most common infections, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis are curable, while herpes, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, and HPV are treatable but not curable. 1 Resistance to certain antibiotics is developing among some organisms such as gonorrhea. 5

West Greene, AL Std Test. AL std test. In 2008, it was estimated that 500 million people were infected with either syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia or trichomoniasis. 1 At least an additional 530 million people have genital herpes and 290 million women have human papillomavirus 1 STIs other than HIV resulted in 142,000 deaths in 2013. 6 In the United States there were 19 million new cases of sexually transmitted infections in 2010. 7 Historical documentation of STIs date back to at least the Ebers papyrus around 1550 BC and the Old Testament 8 There is often shame and stigma associated with these infections. 1 The term sexually transmitted infection is generally preferred over the terms sexually transmitted disease and venereal disease, as it includes those who do not have symptomatic disease. 9

The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended sexually transmitted infection as the preferred term since 1999. 9 Sexually transmitted infection is a broader term than sexually transmitted disease. Std Test near West Greene Alabama, United States. 11 An infection is a colonization by a parasitic species, which may not cause any adverse effects. In a disease , the infection leads to impaired or abnormal function. In either case, the condition may not exhibit signs or symptoms. Increased understanding of infections like HPV , which infects a significant portion of sexually active individuals but cause disease in only a few, has led to increased use of the term STI. Public health officials originally introduced the term sexually transmitted infection, which clinicians are increasingly using alongside the term sexually transmitted disease in order to distinguish it from the former. 12

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STD may refer only to infections that are causing diseases, or it may be used more loosely as a synonym for STI. Most of the time, people do not know that they are infected with an STI until they are tested or start showing symptoms of disease. Moreover, the term sexually transmissible disease is sometimes used since it is less restrictive in consideration of other factors or means of transmission. For instance, meningitis is transmissible by means of sexual contact but is not labeled an STI because sexual contact is not the primary vector for the pathogens that cause meningitis. This discrepancy is addressed by the probability of infection by means other than sexual contact. In general, an STI is an infection that has a negligible probability of transmission by means other than sexual contact, but has a realistic means of transmission by sexual contact (more sophisticated means— blood transfusion , sharing of hypodermic needles —are not taken into account). Thus, one may presume that, if a person is infected with an STI, e.g., chlamydia , gonorrhea , genital herpes , HPV it was transmitted to him/her by means of sexual contact.

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis In women, symptoms may include abnormal vaginal discharge, burning during urination, and bleeding in between periods, although most women do not experience any symptoms. 45 Symptoms in men include pain when urinating, and abnormal discharge from their penis. 46 If left untreated in both men and women, Chlamydia can infect the urinary tract and potentially lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can cause serious problems during pregnancy and even has the potential to cause infertility. It can cause a woman to have a potentially deadly ectopic pregnancy, in which the child is born outside of the uterus. However, Chlamydia can be cured with antibiotics.

The two most common forms of herpes are caused by infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV-1 is typically acquired orally and causes cold sores, HSV-2 is usually acquired during sexual contact and affects the genitals, however either strain may affect either site. 47 Some people are asymptomatic or have very mild symptoms. Those that do experience symptoms usually notice them 2 to 20 days after exposure which last 2 to 4 weeks. Symptoms can include small fluid-filled blisters, headaches, backaches, itching or tingling sensations in the genital or anal area, pain during urination, Flu like symptoms , swollen glands, or fever. Herpes is spread through skin contact with a person infected with the virus. The virus affects the areas where it entered the body. This can occur through kissing, vaginal intercourse, oral sex or anal sex. The virus is most infectious during times when there are visible symptoms, however those who are asymptomatic can still spread the virus through skin contact. 48 The primary attack is the most severe because the body does not have any antibodies built up. After the primary attack, one might have recurring attacks that are milder or might not even have future attacks. There is no cure for the disease but there are antiviral medications that treat its symptoms and lower the risk of transmission ( Valtrex ). Although HSV-1 is typically the "oral" version of the virus, and HSV-2 is typically the "genital" version of the virus, a person with HSV-1 orally CAN transmit that virus to their partner genitally. The virus, either type, will settle into a nerve bundle either at the top of the spine, producing the "oral" outbreak, or a second nerve bundle at the base of the spine, producing the genital outbreak.

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common STI in the United States. 49 There are more than 40 different strands of HPV and many do not cause any health problems. In 90% of cases the body's immune system clears the infection naturally within 2 years. 50 Some cases may not be cleared and can lead to genital warts (bumps around the genitals that can be small or large, raised or flat, or shaped like cauliflower) or cervical cancer and other HPV related cancers. Symptoms might not show up until advanced stages. It is important for women to get pap smears in order to check for and treat cancers. There are also two vaccines available for women ( Cervarix and Gardasil ) that protect against the types of HPV that cause cervical cancer. HPV can be passed through genital-to-genital contact as well as during oral sex. It is important to remember that the infected partner might not have any symptoms.

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Gonorrhea is caused by bacterium that lives on moist mucous membranes in the urethra, vagina, rectum, mouth, throat, and eyes. The infection can spread through contact with the penis, vagina, mouth or anus. Symptoms of Gonorrhea usually appear 2 to 5 days after contact with an infected partner however, some men might not notice symptoms for up to a month. Symptoms in men include burning and pain while urinating, increased urinary frequency, discharge from the penis (white, green, or yellow in color), red or swollen urethra, swollen or tender testicles, or sore throat. Symptoms in women may include vaginal discharge, burning or itching while urinating, painful sexual intercourse, severe pain in lower abdomen (if infection spreads to fallopian tubes), or fever (if infection spreads to fallopian tubes), however many women do not show any symptoms. 51 There are some antibiotic resistant strains for Gonorrhea but most cases can be cured with antibiotics.

Syphilis is an STI caused by a bacterium. Untreated, it can lead to complications and death. 52 Clinical manifestations of syphilis include the ulceration of the uro-genital tract, mouth or rectum; if left untreated the symptoms worsen. In recent years, the prevalence of syphilis has declined in Western Europe, but it has increased in Eastern Europe (former Soviet states). A high incidence of syphilis can be found in places such as Cameroon , Cambodia , Papua New Guinea. AL, United States std test. 53 Syphilis infections are increasing in the United States. 54

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) damages the body's immune system, which interferes with its ability to fight off disease-causing agents. The virus kills CD4 cells, which are white blood cells that help fight off various infections. HIV is carried in body fluids, and is spread by sexual activity. It can also be spread by contact with infected blood, breast feeding, childbirth, and from mother to child during pregnancy. 58 When HIV is at its most advanced stage, an individual is said to have AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). 59 There are different stages of the progression of and HIV infection. The stages include primary infection , asymptomatic infection, symptomatic infection, and AIDS. In the primary infection stage, an individual will have flu like symptoms (headache, fatigue, fever, muscle aches) for about 2 weeks. In the asymptomatic stage, symptoms usually disappear, and the patient can remain asymptomatic for years. When HIV progresses to the symptomatic stage, the immune system is weakened, and has a low cell count of CD4+ T Cells When the HIV infection becomes life-threatening, it is called AIDS. People with AIDS fall prey to opportunistic infections and die as a result. 45 When the disease was first discovered in the 1980s, those who had AIDS were not likely to live longer than a few years. There are now antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) available to treat HIV infections. There is no known cure for HIV or AIDS but the drugs help suppress the virus. By suppressing the amount of virus in the body, people can lead longer and healthier lives. Even though their virus levels may be low they can still spread the virus to others. 60

There are many species of bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and viruses, many which remain undocumented or poorly studied with regards to sexual transmission. Std Test nearest West Greene, AL. Std Test in West Greene AL. citation needed Despite that the above include what are generally known as STIs, sexually transmission of microbes is far from limited to the above list. Since the sexual route of transmission is not considered common, and/or the microbe itself is not implicated in a major research study on disease, the following pathogens are simply not screened for in sexual health clinics. Some of these microbes are known to be sexually transmittable.

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Many STIs are (more easily) transmitted through the mucous membranes of the penis , vulva , rectum , urinary tract and (less often—depending on type of infection) the mouth , throat , respiratory tract and eyes 63 The visible membrane covering the head of the penis is a mucous membrane, though it produces no mucus (similar to the lips of the mouth). Mucous membranes differ from skin in that they allow certain pathogens into the body. 64 The amount of contact with infective sources which causes infection varies with each pathogen but in all cases a disease may result from even light contact from fluid carriers like venereal fluids onto a mucous membrane.

This is one reason that the probability of transmitting many infections is far higher from sex than by more casual means of transmission, such as non-sexual contact—touching, hugging, shaking hands—but it is not the only reason. Although mucous membranes exist in the mouth as in the genitals, many STIs seem to be easier to transmit through oral sex than through deep kissing. According to a safe sex chart, many infections that are easily transmitted from the mouth to the genitals or from the genitals to the mouth are much harder to transmit from one mouth to another. 65 With HIV, genital fluids happen to contain much more of the pathogen than saliva Some infections labeled as STIs can be transmitted by direct skin contact. Herpes simplex and HPV are both examples. KSHV , on the other hand, may be transmitted by deep-kissing but also when saliva is used as a sexual lubricant.

As may be noted from the name, sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted from one person to another by certain sexual activities rather than being actually caused by those sexual activities. Bacteria , fungi , protozoa or viruses are still the causative agents. It is not possible to catch any sexually transmitted disease from a sexual activity with a person who is not carrying a disease; conversely, a person who has an STI got it from contact (sexual or otherwise) with someone who had it, or his/her bodily fluids. Std Test nearest West Greene AL. Some STIs such as HIV can be transmitted from mother to child either during pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Healthcare professionals suggest safer sex , such as the use of condoms , as the most reliable way of decreasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases during sexual activity, but safer sex should by no means be considered an absolute safeguard. Std Test closest to West Greene, AL. The transfer of and exposure to bodily fluids, such as blood transfusions and other blood products, sharing injection needles , needle-stick injuries (when medical staff are inadvertently jabbed or pricked with needles during medical procedures), sharing tattoo needles, and childbirth are other avenues of transmission. These different means put certain groups, such as medical workers, and haemophiliacs and drug users, particularly at risk.

Some treatment facilities utilize in-home test kits and have the person return the test for follow-up. Std Test nearby West Greene, AL. Std test in West Greene. Other facilities strongly encourage that those previously infected return to ensure that the infection has been eliminated. Novel strategies to foster re-testing have been the use of text messaging and email as reminders. These types of reminders are now used in addition to phone calls and letters. 67 After obtaining a sexual history, a healthcare provider should encourage risk reduction by providing prevention counseling Prevention counseling is most effective if provided in a nonjudgmental and empathetic manner appropriate to the person's culture, language, gender, sexual orientation, age, and developmental level. Prevention counseling for STIs should be offered to all sexually active adolescents and to all adults who have received a diagnosis, have had an STI in the past year, or have multiple sex partners 68

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