A treatment that can be administered by the patient is a 0.5% solution or gel of podofilox (podophyllotoxin). The medication is applied to the warts twice per day for three days followed by 4 days without treatment. Treatment should be continued up to three to four weeks or until the lesions are gone. Podofilox may also be applied every other day for a total of three weeks. Alternatively, a 5% cream of imiquimod (a substance that stimulates the body's production of cytokines, chemicals that direct and strengthen the immune response) is likewise applied by the patient three times a week at bedtime, and then washed off with mild soap and water 6-10 hours later. The applications are repeated for up to 16 weeks or until the lesions are gone. Sinecatechin 15% ointment, a green-tea extract with an active product (catechins), is another topical treatment that can be applied by the patient. Std test closest to Kaunakakai. This drug should be applied three times daily until complete clearance of warts, for up to 16 weeks.
Only an experienced physician can perform some of the treatments for genital warts. Std Test near me Kaunakakai, HI. These include, for example, placing a small amount of a 10% to 25% solution of podophyllin resin on the lesions, and then, after a period of hours, washing off the podophyllin. The treatments are repeated weekly until the genital warts are gone. An 80% to 90% solution of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or bichloracetic acid (BCA) can also be applied weekly by a physician to the lesions. Injection of 5-fluorouracil epinephrine gel into the lesions has also been shown to be effective in treating genital warts.
Women who have evidence of moderate to severe precancerous changes in the uterine cervix require treatment to ensure that these cells do not become invasive cancer. In this case, treatment usually involves surgical removal or destruction of the involved tissue. Conization is a procedure that removes the precancerous area of the cervix using a knife, a laser, or a procedure known as LEEP (loop electrosurgical excision procedure, which uses an electric current passing through a thin wire that acts as a knife). Std Test closest to Kaunakakai. Cryotherapy (freezing) or laser therapy may be used to destroy tissue areas that contain potentially precancerous changes.
Both people with HPV infection and their partners need to be counseled about the risk of spreading HPV and the appearance of the lesions. They should understand that the absence of lesions does not exclude the possibility of transmission and that condoms are not completely effective in preventing the spread of the infection. It is important to note that it is not known whether treatment decreases infectivity. Finally, female partners of men with genital warts should be reminded of the importance of regular Pap smears to screen for cervical cancer and precancerous changes in the cervix, since precancerous changes can be treated and reduce a woman's risk of developing cervical cancer. Similarly, men should be informed of the potential risk of anal cancers , although it is not yet been determined how to best screen for or manage early anal cancer.
Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) is a bacterium that causes an infection that is very similar to gonorrhea in the way that it is spread and the symptoms it produces. It is common and affects approximately 4 million women annually. Kaunakakai HI Std Test. Kaunakakai Std Test. Like gonorrhea, the chlamydia bacterium is found in the cervix and urethra and can live in the throat or rectum. Std test nearby Kaunakakai HI. Both infected men and infected women frequently lack symptoms of chlamydia infection. Thus, these individuals can unknowingly spread the infection to others. Another strain (type) of Chlamydia trachomatis,, which can be distinguished in specialized laboratories, causes the STD known as lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV; see below).
The majority of women with chlamydia do not have symptoms. Cervicitis (infection of the uterine cervix) is the most common manifestation of the infection. While about half of women with chlamydial cervicitis have no symptoms, others may experience vaginal discharge or abdominal pain Infection of the urethra is often associated with chlamydial infection of the cervix. Women with infection of the urethra (urethritis) have the typical symptoms of a urinary tract infection, including pain upon urination and the frequent and urgent need to urinate.
Chlamydial infection, like gonorrhea, is associated with an increased incidence of premature births. In addition, the infant can acquire the infection during passage through the infected birth canal, leading to serious eye damage or pneumonia. For this reason, all newborns are treated with eye drops containing an antibiotic that kills chlamydia. Treatment of all newborns is routine because of the large number of infected women without symptoms and the dire consequences of chlamydial eye infection to the newborn.
Chlamydia can be detected on material collected by swabbing the cervix during a traditional examination using a speculum, but noninvasive screening tests done on urine or on self-collected vaginal swabs are less expensive and sometimes more acceptable to patients. While culturing of the organism can confirm the diagnosis, this method is limited to research laboratories and forensic investigations. For routine diagnostic use, newer and inexpensive diagnostic tests that depend upon identification and amplification of the genetic material of the organism have replaced the older, time-consuming culture methods.
Treatment of chlamydia involves antibiotics. A convenient single-dose therapy for chlamydia is oral azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax). Alternative treatments are often used, however, because of the high cost of this medication. The most common alternative treatment is doxycycline (Vibramycin, Oracea, Adoxa, Atridox, and others). Unlike gonorrhea, there has been little, if any, resistance of chlamydia to current antibiotics. There are many other antibiotics that also have been effective against chlamydia. As with gonorrhea, a condom or other protective barrier prevents the spread of the infection.
Chancroid is an infection caused by the bacterium Hemophilus ducreyi, which is passed from one sexual partner to another. It begins in a sexually exposed area of the genital skin, most commonly the penis and vulva (the female external genital organs including the labia, clitoris, and entrance to the vagina). Chancroid starts out as a tender bump that emerges 3 to10 days (the incubation period) after the sexual exposure. The cells that form the bump then begin to die, and the bump becomes an ulcer (an open sore) that is usually painful. Often, there is an associated tenderness and swelling of the glands (lymph nodes) in the groin that normally drain lymph (tissue fluid) from the genital area; however, the painful ulcer and tender lymph nodes occur together in only about one-third of infections. Chancroid is common in developing countries but is a relatively rare cause of genital ulcers in the U.S.
A clinical diagnosis of chancroid (which is made from the medical history and physical examination) can be made if the patient has one or more painful ulcers in the genital area and tests are negative for syphilis or herpes. (The word chancroid means resembling a chancre, the genital ulcer that is caused by syphilis. Chancroid sometimes is called soft chancre to distinguish it from the chancre of syphilis that feels hard to the touch. The ulcer of chancroid also is painful, unlike the ulcer of syphilis that is painless.) The diagnosis of chancroid can be confirmed by a culture of the material from within the ulcer for the bacterium Hemophilus ducreyi. The clinical diagnosis justifies the treatment of chancroid even if cultures are not available.
Chancroid is almost always cured with a single oral dose of azithromycin (Zithromax) or a single injection of ceftriaxone (Rocephin). Alternative medications are ciprofloxacin (Cipro) or erythromycin. Whichever treatment is used, the ulcers should improve within seven days. Std test near HI United States. If no improvement is seen after treatment, the patient should be reevaluated for causes of ulcers other than chancroid. HIV-infected individuals are at an increased risk for failing treatment for chancroid and should be observed closely to assure that the treatment has been effective.
In most women, an early infection resolves on its own, even without treatment. However, some will proceed to the second stage of the infection called "secondary" syphilis, which develops weeks to months after the primary stage and lasts from four to six weeks. Secondary syphilis is asystemic stage of the disease, meaning that it can involve various organ systems of the body. In this stage, patients can initially experience many different symptoms, but most commonly they develop a skin rash , typically appearing on the palms of the hands or the bottoms of the feet, that does not itch. Sometimes the skin rash of secondary syphilis is very faint and hard to recognize; it may not even be noticed in all cases. This secondary stage can also include hair loss, sore throat, fever, headaches, and white patches in the nose, mouth, and vagina. There can be lesions on the genitals that look like genital warts but are caused by spirochetes rather than the wart virus. These wart-like lesions, as well as the skin rash, are highly contagious. The rash can occur on the palms of the hands, and the infection can be transmitted by casual contact.
Special blood tests can also be used to diagnose syphilis. Std Test nearest Kaunakakai. The standard screening blood tests for syphilis are called the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) and Rapid Plasminogen Reagent (RPR) tests. These tests detect the body's response to the infection, but not to the actual Treponema organism that causes the infection. These tests are thus referred to as non-treponemal tests. Although the non-treponemal tests are very effective in detecting evidence of infection, they can also produce a positive result when no infection is actually present (so-called false-positive results for syphilis). Consequently, any positive non-treponemal test must be confirmed by a treponemal test specific for the organism causing syphilis, such as the microhemagglutination assay for T. pallidum (MHA-TP) and the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed test (FTA-ABS). These treponemal tests directly detect the body's response to Treponema pallidum.
Although there are no specific symptoms or signs that confirm HIV infection, many people will develop a nonspecific illness two to four weeks after they have been infected. This initial illness may be characterized by fever, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle and joint pains, headache, sore throat, and/or painful lymph nodes. On average, people are ill for up to two weeks with the initial illness. Std Test closest to HI. Kaunakakai HI std test. Std test near Kaunakakai HI. In rare cases, the initial illness has occurred up to 10 months after infection. It is also possible to become infected with the HIV virus without having recognized the initial illness.
The average time from infection to the development of symptoms related to immunosuppression (decreased functioning of the immune system) is 10 years. Serious complications include unusual infections or cancers, weight loss, intellectual deterioration (dementia), and death. When the symptoms of HIV are severe, the disease is referred to as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Numerous treatment options now available for HIV-infected individuals allow many patients to control their infection and delay the progression of their disease to AIDS.
Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection caused by the organism Neisseria gonorrheae (also known as gonococcus bacteriae) that is transmitted by sexual contact. Gonorrhea is one of the oldest known sexually transmitted diseases. It is estimated that over one million women are currently infected with gonorrhea. Among women who are infected, a significant percentage also will be infected with chlamydia, another type of bacteria that causes another STD. (Chlamydia infection is discussed later in this article.)
Contrary to popular belief, gonorrhea cannot be transmitted from toilet seats or door handles. The bacterium that causes gonorrhea requires very specific conditions for growth and reproduction. It cannot live outside the body for longer than a few minutes, nor can it live on the skin of the hands, arms, or legs. It survives only on moist surfaces within the body and is found most commonly in the vagina, and, more commonly, the cervix. (The cervix is the end of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina.) It can also live in the tube (urethra) through which urine drains from the bladder. Gonorrhea can also exist in the back of the throat (from oral-genital contact) and in the rectum.
If untreated, gonorrhea can lead to a severe pelvic infection with inflammation of the Fallopian tubes and ovaries. Gonorrhea can also spread through the body to infect joints to cause gonococcal arthritis Gonorrheal infection of the Fallopian tubes can lead to a serious, painful infection of the pelvis known as pelvic inflammatory disease or PID. PID occurs in a significant portion of women with gonorrheal infection of the uterine cervix. Symptoms of pelvic infection include fever, pelvic cramping, abdominal pain, or pain with intercourse. Pelvic infection can lead to difficulty in becoming pregnant or even sterility. Occasionally, if the infection is severe enough, a localized area of infection and pus (an abscess) forms, and major surgery may be necessary and even lifesaving. Gonorrhea infection in people with conditions causing serious abnormal immune function, such as AIDS,, can also be more serious.
Testing for gonorrhea is done by swabbing the infected site (rectum, throat, cervix) and identifying the bacteria in the laboratory either through culturing of the material from the swab (growing the bacteria) or identification of the genetic material from the bacteria. Std Test near Kaunakakai Hawaii. Sometimes the tests do not show bacteria because of sampling errors (the sampled area does not contain bacteria) or other technical difficulties, even when the woman has an infection. Newer tests to diagnose gonorrhea involve the use of DNA probes or amplification techniques (for example, polymerase chain reaction , or PCR) to identify the genetic material of the bacteria. These tests are more expensive than cultures but typically yield more rapid results.
Treatment for gonorrhea should always include medication that will treat chlamydia for example, azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax ) or doxycycline ( Vibramycin , Oracea , Adoxa , Atridox and others) as well as gonorrhea, because gonorrhea and chlamydia frequently exist together in the same person. The sexual partners of women who have had either gonorrhea or chlamydia must receive treatment for both infections since their partners may be infected as well. Treating the partners also prevents reinfection of the woman. Women suffering from PID or gonococcal arthritis require more aggressive treatment that is effective against the bacteria that cause gonorrhea as well as against other organisms. These women often require intravenous administration of antibiotics.
Hand-foot-mouth disease is not a sexually transmitted disease. Public lice or "crabs" is a type of ectoparasitic infection, which refers to infections caused by tiny parasitic bugs or mites. Urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) may be caused by the same germs that can cause STDs and symptoms include a burning sensation during urination, and thick or watery discharge. A chancroid is a type of bacteria that is transmitted during sexual contact, and it causes painful, open sores about 4 to 10 days after infection.
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease and it cannot be transmitted from toilet seats or other surfaces such as door handles. The bacterium that causes gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrheae, cannot survive outside the body for more than a few minutes. Neisseria gonorrheae requires very specific conditions including moist surfaces within the body such as the vagina and cervix. If the bacterium that causes gonorrhea infects the Fallopian tubes, this can lead to a painful condition called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
If left untreated, syphilis can lead to deafness and can even be fatal in the later stages. The primary stage of syphilis is the formation of a painless sore (chancre) in the location where the infection entered the body (usually the vagina or anus). The secondary stage causes rashes that do not itch on several parts of the body. There may be a latent, or hidden, stage of syphilis when the primary and secondary symptoms disappear. If syphilis is left untreated, it can reach the late stage where internal organs may be damaged, and symptoms include deafness, blindness, paralysis, and dementia. The organ damage may be severe and can lead to death.
In addition to chlamydia, the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis can cause lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), orchitis, epididymitis, and urethritis. Lymphogranuloma venereum causes lesions that may resemble herpes, and it affects the genitals, anus, or rectum. Orchitis (inflammation of the tube connecting the urethra and the testicles) and epididymitis cause inflammation in parts of the testicles, and urethritis (inflammation of the urethra) in men causes a burning sensation during urination and a thick or watery discharge.
Kaposi's sarcoma is caused by the Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). It is a type of skin tumor characterized by red or purple skin lesions. In most cases, KSHV alone does not cause Kaposi's sarcoma, but when a person with a weakened immune system such as those with HIV infection are exposed to the virus, they may develop the illness. Human herpesvirus 8 has been isolated in the semen of men infected with HIV, which is part of the basis for suspecting it as a sexually transmitted disease.
Condoms are highly effective in reducing the spread of HIV when they are used correctly and consistently. However, even when used properly, there is still a chance of passing on HIV if condoms are the only protection used. Condoms are also useful in preventing other sexually transmitted diseases that are passed through bodily fluids, including gonorrhea and chlamydia. They are not as effective in protecting against STDs that are spread by skin-to-skin contact such as syphilis, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus (genital warts). Talk to your doctor about the best ways to prevent the spread of HIV and other STDs.
Kaunakakai HI std test. STDs are an important global health priority because of their devastating impact on women and infants and their inter-relationships with HIV/AIDS. STDs and HIV are linked by biological interactions and because both infections occur in the same populations. Infection with certain STDs can increase the risk of getting and transmitting HIV as well as alter the way the disease progresses. In addition, STDs can cause long-term health problems, particularly in women and infants. Std Test nearby Kaunakakai, HI, United States. Some of the health complications that arise from STDs include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, tubal or ectopic pregnancy, cervical cancer, and perinatal or congenital infections in infants born to infected mothers.
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