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Herpes is a family of viruses that cause infections in humans. Anal herpes is an infection caused by the herpes virus that erupts as sores or blisters around the anus, the opening through which bowel movements pass. Anal herpes are caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). In particular, a type of HSV called HSV type 2 (HSV-II). Syphilis, chancroid, and donovanosis are infections that can cause different types of lesions around the anus. Std test nearest Lanai City HI United States. All of these infections, including HSV-II, are acquired through sexual contact.

Herpes is a family of viruses that cause infections in humans. Anal herpes is an infection caused by the herpes virus that erupts as sores or blisters around the anus, the opening through which bowel movements pass. Anal herpes are caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). In particular, a type of HSV called HSV type 2 (HSV-II). Syphilis, chancroid, and donovanosis are infections that can cause different types of lesions around the anus. All of these infections, including HSV-II, are acquired through sexual contact.

Gonorrhea passes from person to person through unprotected oral, anal, or vaginal sex. Std test closest to Lanai City. People with numerous sexual partners or those who don't use a condom are at greatest risk of infection. The best protections against infection are abstinence, monogamy (sex with only one partner), and proper condom usage. Behaviors that make a person more likely to engage in unprotected sex also increase the likelihood of infection. Std Test near Lanai City. These behaviors include alcohol abuse and illegal drug abuse, particularly intravenous drug use.

Healthcare professionals can diagnose gonorrhea infection in several ways. They can take a sample of fluid from the symptomatic area with a swab (penis, vagina, rectum, or throat) and place it on a glass slide. If your doctor suspects a joint or blood infection, he or she will obtain the sample by drawing blood or inserting a needle into the symptomatic joint to withdraw fluid. They will then add a stain to the sample and examine it under a microscope. If cells react to the stain, you most likely have a gonorrhea infection. This method is relatively quick and easy, but it doesn't provide absolutely certainty. This test may also be completed by a lab technologist.

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Women are at greater risk of long-term complications from untreated infections. Untreated infection with gonorrhea in women may ascend up the female reproductive tract and involve the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. This condition is known as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and can cause severe and chronic pain and damage the female reproductive organs. PID can be caused by other sexually transmitted diseases as well. Women may also develop blocking or scarring of the fallopian tubes, which can prevent future pregnancy or cause ectopic pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy is when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus. Gonorrhea infection may pass to a newborn infant during delivery.

The first, or primary, stage of syphilis is characterized by the formation of a painless ulcer known as a chancre This sore develops at the site of infection and is usually solitary. A chancre is usually firm and round in shape. Std Test closest to Lanai City HI. Sometimes, multiple chancres may be present. The chancre contains the infectious bacteria and while the sore is present, the condition is highly contagious Any contact with the chancre can spread the infection. If the chancre is located in the mouth, for example, even kissing can spread the disease. The chancre lasts for about 3 to 6 weeks and typically then goes away on its own. The use of condoms may also not prevent spread of the illness if the chancre is located on an area of the body not covered by the condom

If primary syphilis is left untreated, secondary syphilis may develop. This stage of the illness usually occurs weeks to months after the primary stage. Secondary syphilis is characterized by a skin rash that typically does not itch and may easily be mistaken for rashes caused by other illnesses. It may appear on almost any part of the body, including sores inside the mouth, vagina, or anus. The rash of secondary syphilis is often found on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet , which is unusual for most rashes. In some people, the rash may be mild and not noticed. Raised gray or whitish patches of skin, known as condyloma lata, may also develop, particularly in warm and moist areas of the body such as the armpits, mouth, or groin.

After the symptoms of secondary syphilis go away, the infection remains latent in the body if untreated. About 15% of infected and untreated people will go on to develop the third stage of syphilis, which can occur as much as 10 to 20 years after the initial infection. Tertiary syphilis is characterized by damage to any number of organ systems and can even be fatal. Tertiary syphilis can cause damage to the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver , bones, and joints. Symptoms that can result from the late stage of syphilis include problems with movement, gradual loss of sight, dementia , paralysis , and numbness. Neurosyphilis is the term used to refer to the involvement of the central nervous system and alterations in neurologic function.

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For women. If left untreated, chlamydia infection can cause pelvic inflammatory disease , which can lead to damage of the fallopian tubes (the tubes connecting the ovaries to the uterus) or even cause infertility (the inability to have children). Untreated chlamydia infection could also increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy (when the fertilized egg implants and develops outside the uterus.) Furthermore, chlamydia may cause premature births ( giving birth too early) and the infection can be passed along from the mother to her child during childbirth , causing an eye infection, blindness, or pneumonia in the newborn

Syphilis infection is the highest in women and men between the ages of 20 to 24. Std test nearby Lanai City, Hawaii. Men who have sex with men (MSM; i.e., gay and bisexual men) accounted for about 75 percent of the new cases reported in 2012. Syphilis incidence is higher in African Americans and Hispanics than in Caucasians. Poverty, lack of education, and lack of access to health care are associated with higher infection rates. Cases of congenital syphilis in newborns in the United States decreased from 360 in 2011 to 322 in 2012.

In this stage, the pathogen spreads through the blood to the skin, liver, joints, lymph nodes, muscles, and brain. A rash frequently appears about 6 weeks to 3 months after the chancre has healed. The rash may cover any part of the body, but tends to erupt on the palms or soles of the feet. It does not itch. Multiple painless lesions may also form in mucous membranes of the mouth and throat and on the bones and internal organs. At this time, the disease is highly infectious, because bacteria are present in the secretions from the lesions.

The final stage, also called "late" syphilis, begins 3 or more years after infection. About 30-40 percent of infected people progress to this stage. At this stage, the person may no longer be contagious, but the bacteria reactivate, multiply, and spread throughout the body, damaging the heart, eyes, brain, nervous system, bones, and joints. Tumors may develop on skin, bone, testes, and other tissues; cardiovascular symptoms such as aortic aneurysm and aortic valve insufficiency may develop; degenerative central nervous system disease can produce dementia, tremors, loss of muscle coordination (ataxia), paralysis, and blindness. Damage is irreversible.

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The venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) are used to detect the antibody called reagin, which is produced by the immune system's response to Treponema pallidum infection. "False negative" results may occur when these tests are performed during the first 3 to 6 weeks following infection (primary syphilis); negative results do not rule out syphilis during this time. The fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA) test is also routinely performed to detect treponemal-specific antibodies. FTA is a more sensitive test and thus a more reliable diagnostic tool during all stages of the disease.

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. 2 The signs and symptoms of syphilis vary depending in which of the four stages it presents (primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary). The primary stage classically presents with a single chancre (a firm, painless, non-itchy skin ulceration ) but there may be multiple sores. In secondary syphilis a diffuse rash occurs, which frequently involves the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. There may also be sores in the mouth or vagina. In latent syphilis, which can last for years, there are few or no symptoms. 1 In tertiary syphilis there are gummas (soft non-cancerous growths), neurological, or heart symptoms. 5 Syphilis has been known as " the great imitator " as it may cause symptoms similar to many other diseases. 1 5

Syphilis is most commonly spread through sexual activity 1 It may also be transmitted from mother to baby during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis 1 6 Other human diseases caused by related Treponema pallidum subspecies include yaws (subspecies pertenue), pinta (subspecies carateum), and bejel (subspecies endemicum). Std Test closest to Lanai City United States. 5 Diagnosis is usually made by using blood tests ; the bacteria can also be detected using dark field microscopy The Center for Disease Control recommends all pregnant women be tested. Std test nearest Lanai City Hawaii United States. 1

The risk of syphilis can be decreased by latex condom use, or not having sex. 1 Syphilis can be effectively treated with antibiotics The preferred antibiotic for most cases is benzathine penicillin G injected into a muscle In those who have a severe penicillin allergy , doxycycline or tetracycline may be used. Std test near Lanai City HI. In those with neurosyphilis , intravenous penicillin G potassium or ceftriaxone is recommended. During treatment people may develop fever, headache, and muscle pains , a reaction known as Jarisch-Herxheimer 2

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In 2012, about 0.5% of adults were infected with syphilis with 6 million new cases. 3 During 2015, it caused about 107,000 deaths, down from 202,000 in 1990. 7 4 After decreasing dramatically with the availability of penicillin in the 1940s, rates of infection have increased since the turn of the millennium in many countries, often in combination with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). 5 8 This is believed to be partly due to increased promiscuity , prostitution , decreasing use of condoms, and unsafe sexual practices among men who have sex with men 9 10 11 In 2015, Cuba became the first country in the world to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of syphilis. 12

Primary syphilis is typically acquired by direct sexual contact with the infectious lesions of another person. 15 Approximately 3 to 90 days after the initial exposure (average 21 days) a skin lesion, called a chancre , appears at the point of contact. This is classically (40% of the time) a single, firm, painless, non-itchy skin ulceration with a clean base and sharp borders 0.3-3.0 cm in size. 5 The lesion may take on almost any form. In the classic form, it evolves from a macule to a papule and finally to an erosion or ulcer 16 Occasionally, multiple lesions may be present (~40%), 5 with multiple lesions more common when coinfected with HIV. Lesions may be painful or tender (30%), and they may occur in places other than the genitals (2-7%). The most common location in women is the cervix (44%), the penis in heterosexual men (99%), and anally and rectally relatively commonly in men who have sex with men (34%). Std Test in Lanai City Hawaii, United States. 16 Lymph node enlargement frequently (80%) occurs around the area of infection, 5 occurring seven to 10 days after chancre formation. 16 The lesion may persist for three to six weeks without treatment. 5

Secondary syphilis occurs approximately four to ten weeks after the primary infection. Std test closest to Lanai City HI. 5 While secondary disease is known for the many different ways it can manifest, symptoms most commonly involve the skin, mucous membranes , and lymph nodes 17 There may be a symmetrical, reddish-pink, non-itchy rash on the trunk and extremities, including the palms and soles. 5 18 The rash may become maculopapular or pustular It may form flat, broad, whitish, wart-like lesions known as condyloma latum on mucous membranes All of these lesions harbor bacteria and are infectious. Other symptoms may include fever , sore throat , malaise , weight loss , hair loss , and headache 5 Rare manifestations include liver inflammation , kidney disease, joint inflammation , periostitis , inflammation of the optic nerve , uveitis , and interstitial keratitis 5 19 The acute symptoms usually resolve after three to six weeks; 19 about 25% of people may present with a recurrence of secondary symptoms. Many people who present with secondary syphilis (40-85% of women, 20-65% of men) do not report previously having had the classic chancre of primary syphilis. 17

Neurosyphilis refers to an infection involving the central nervous system It may occur early, being either asymptomatic or in the form of syphilitic meningitis , or late as meningovascular syphilis, general paresis , or tabes dorsalis , which is associated with poor balance and lightning pains in the lower extremities. Late neurosyphilis typically occurs 4 to 25 years after the initial infection. Meningovascular syphilis typically presents with apathy and seizure , and general paresis with dementia and tabes dorsalis 5 Also, there may be Argyll Robertson pupils , which are bilateral small pupils that constrict when the person focuses on near objects but do not constrict when exposed to bright light.

Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum is a spiral-shaped, Gram-negative , highly mobile bacterium. 8 16 Three other human diseases are caused by related Treponema pallidum subspecies, including yaws (subspecies pertenue), pinta (subspecies carateum) and bejel (subspecies endemicum). 5 Unlike subtype pallidum, they do not cause neurological disease. 6 Humans are the only known natural reservoir for subspecies pallidum. 13 It is unable to survive more than a few days without a host. This is due to its small genome (1.14 Mbp ) failing to encode the metabolic pathways necessary to make most of its macronutrients. It has a slow doubling time of greater than 30 hours. 16

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Syphilis is transmitted primarily by sexual contact or during pregnancy from a mother to her fetus ; the spirochete is able to pass through intact mucous membranes or compromised skin. 5 13 It is thus transmissible by kissing near a lesion, as well as oral, vaginal, and anal sex. Std test closest to Lanai City, United States. 5 Approximately 30% to 60% of those exposed to primary or secondary syphilis will get the disease. 19 Its infectivity is exemplified by the fact that an individual inoculated with only 57 organisms has a 50% chance of being infected. 16 Most (60%) of new cases in the United States occur in men who have sex with men. Syphilis can be transmitted by blood products , but the risk is low due to blood testing in many countries. The risk of transmission from sharing needles appears limited. 5

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