Chlamydial disease, like gonorrhea, is related to an increased incidence of premature births. Additionally, the fetus can acquire the disease during passage through the infected birth canal, resulting in serious eye damage or pneumonia For this reason, all newborns are treated with eye drops containing an antibiotic that kills chlamydia. Std test nearest Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey. Treatment of all newborns is routine because of the large number of infected women without symptoms and also the serious consequences of chlamydial eye infection to the newborn
Treatment of chlamydia involves antibiotics. A convenient single-dose treatment for chlamydia is 1 gm of azithromycin ( Zithromax , Zmax ) by mouth. Alternate treatments can be used, however, because of the high cost of this medication. The most frequent alternative treatment is a 100 mg oral dose of doxycycline ( Vibramycin , Oracea , Adoxa , Atridox and others) twice per day for seven days. Unlike gonorrhea, there has been little, if any, resistance of chlamydia to antibiotics that are currently used. There are many other antibiotics that also have been successful against chlamydia. As with gonorrhea, a condom or another protective barrier prevents the spread of the infection. Sexual partners also require treatment. Follow-up testing to confirm success of the treatment is vital.
Identification of chlamydia relies upon a laboratory evaluation to show that the organism is present, either through culture or identification of the genetic material of the bacteria. Culture is an older and much more time consuming method of identifying the bacteria and is normally used. For routine diagnostic purposes, quick tests that identify the bacterial genetic material are widely used. These are referred to as nucleic acid amplification tests, or NAATs. The specimen for NAATs could be gotten in the time of gynecologic evaluation by swabbing the cervix, but diagnostic tests can be run on urine samples or self-collected vaginal swabs.
Women whose male partner is uncircumcised have been found to show a 5.6-fold increased risk of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis than women whose partner was circumcised Castellsague et al., 2005. Thus in this large multi-state study circumcision reduced the risk 82%. Data were identical for women who had only had one sexual partner. The study involved 305 couples from various elements of the world in 5 nations. A prospective study of 5,925 women in Uganda, Zimbabwe and Thailand found no significant difference, however, in danger of Chlamydia or gonorrhoea Turner et al., 2008.
Most instances are in the teen to 24 year old age group, and are 2.5 times higher in females than males Weaver, 2007. The rise coincides with a rise in the proportion of uncircumcised men in this sexually active age group. Chlamydia trachomatis is accountable for pelvic inflammatory disease that causes infertility, ectopic pregnancy and pelvic pain. It is also a co factor in HPV-induced HIV transmission cervical cancer and, in both genders. In men, just as in women, it can cause infertility, in addition to prostatitis and urethral blockage.
Std Test nearby Atlantic Highlands, NJ. Men as well as women can get the disease, but women are more inclined to be diagnosed Mathematically, you're prone to get an STI in the event that you have sex with greater than one man Disease rates are highest among y ounger women partly because their immature cervical cells are exposed to illness , but old age isn't a protection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all sexually active women age 25 and younger get screened for chlamydia each year, along with older women with risk factors like multiple or new partners.
Men and women can get the infection, but women are more prone to be diagnosed Mathematically, you're more likely to get an STI in the event you have sex with more than one person Disease rates are highest among y ounger women partially because their immature cervical cells are vulnerable to disease , but mature age is not a protection. Std test in NJ, United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all sexually active women age 25 and younger get screened for chlamydia annually, as well as older women with risk factors like multiple or new partners.
The good news is the fact that chlamydia is easily treated by antibiotics The bad news is that 50% of women who get the disease do not understand they're infected and 30% develop serious complications such as damage to the fallopian tubes (the tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus) caused by pelvic inflammatory disease , which may result in sterility. Damage to the fallopian tubes can also increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy (when the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus). Untreated chlamydia in pregnancy may result in premature birth.
Std test closest to Atlantic Highlands NJ United States. Chlamydia disease, often just referred to as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection due to the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis 1 Most folks who are infected have no symptoms. When symptoms do develop this could take a few weeks following infection to happen. Symptoms in women may include vaginal discharge or burning with urination Symptoms in men may include discharge from the penis, burning with urination, or pain and swelling of one or both testicles 2 The infection can spread to the top genital tract in women causing pelvic inflammatory disease which may lead to future infertility or ectopic pregnancy 3 Recurrent infections of the eyes that go without treatment can result in trachoma , a standard cause of blindness in the developing world 4
Chlamydia can be spread during vaginal , anal , or oral sex , and may be passed from an infected mother to her baby during childbirth 2 The eye infections may also be spread by personal contact, flies, and dirty towels in regions with poor sterilization 4 Chlamydia trachomatis just occurs in individuals. 5 Analysis is often by screening which is advocated annually in sexually active women under the age of twenty five, others at higher risk, and at the first prenatal visit 2 3 Testing may be achieved on the pee or a swab of the cervix, vagina, or urethra 3 Rectal or mouth swabs must diagnose illnesses in those places. Std test near me Atlantic Highlands NJ. 3
Prevention is by not having sex, using condoms, or having sex with only one other person, who is not infected. 2 Chlamydia may be treated by antibiotics with usually either azithromycin or doxycycline being used. During pregnancy Sexual partners must even be treated and erythromycin or azithromycin is advocated in babies and the people that were infected counseled not to have sex for seven days and until symptom free. Gonorrhea , syphilis , and HIV should be analyzed for in those who have been infected. Following treatment people should be tested after three months. 3
Chlamydial disease of the cervix (neck of the womb) is a sexually transmitted infection which has no symptoms for 50-70% of women infected. The disease could be passed through vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Of those who have an asymptomatic infection that's not discovered by their doctor, about half will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a generic term for infection of the uterus , fallopian tubes , and/or ovaries PID can cause scarring within the reproductive organs , which may later cause serious complications, including chronic pelvic pain, difficulty becoming pregnant , ectopic (tubal) pregnancy , and other dangerous complications of pregnancy.
In men, people that have a chlamydial disease show symptoms of contagious inflammation of the urethra in about 50% of instances. 11 Symptoms that could occur include: a painful or burning sensation when urinating, an unusual discharge from the penis, testicular swelling or pain, or fever. If left untreated, chlamydia in men can spread to the testicles causing epididymitis , which in rare cases can cause sterility or maybe even treated. 11 Chlamydia is, in addition, a possible cause of prostatic inflammation in men, although the precise relevance in prostatitis is tough to assess because of potential contamination from urethritis. Atlantic Highlands std test. 15
Chlamydia conjunctivitis or trachoma was once the most important source of blindness worldwide, but its role declined from 15% of blindness cases by trachoma in 1995 to 3.6% in 2002. 16 17 The infection may be spread from eye to eye by fingers, shared towels or fabrics, sneezing and coughing and eye-seeking flies. 18 Newborns can also develop chlamydia eye infection through childbirth (see below). Utilizing the SAFE strategy ( acronym for operation for ingrowing or in-turned lashes, antibiotics , facial cleanliness, and environmental improvements), the World Health Organization aims for the global elimination of trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020 initiative). 19 20
The diagnosis of genital chlamydial infections evolved quickly from the 1990s through 2006. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), like polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcription mediated amplification (TMA), along with the DNA strand displacement amplification (SDA) now are the mainstays. NAAT for chlamydia could be performed on swab specimens sampled from the cervix (women) or urethra (men), on self collected vaginal swabs, or on voided urine. 26 NAAT has been estimated to have a sensitivity of approximately 90% and also a specificity of about 99%, irrespective of sampling from a cervical swab or by urine specimen. 27 In women seeking an STI practice and also a urine test is negative , a subsequent cervical swab was estimated to be positive in approximately 2% of the time. 27
Due to improved test correctness, ease of screening sexually active men and women, and ease of specimen direction, convenience in specimen management, the NAATs have mainly replaced culture, the historic gold standard for chlamydia diagnosis, and the non-amplified probe tests. The latter test is relatively insensitive, successfully detecting just 60-80% of diseases in asymptomatic women, and often giving consequences that are falsely positive. Heritage stays useful in selected circumstances and is presently the sole assay qualified for testing non-genital specimens. Other method also exist including: ligase chain reaction (LCR), direct fluorescent antibody resting, enzyme immunoassay, and cell culture. 28
For sexually active women who are not pregnant, screening is recommended in others at risk of infection and those under 25. 12 Risk factors include a history of chlamydial or other sexually transmitted infection, new or multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use. 13 For pregnant women, guidelines vary: screening women with age or alternative risk factors is recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) (which advocates screening women under 25) and the American Academy of Family Physicians (which advocates screening women aged 25 or younger). Atlantic Highlands, NJ, United States Std Test. While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend universal screening of pregnant women the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends screening all at risk. 12 The USPSTF acknowledges that in some communities there may be other risk factors for disease, such as ethnicity. 12 Evidence-based recommendations for screening initiation, intervals and conclusion are presently not possible. 12 For men, the USPSTF concludes evidence is now insufficient to determine if regular screening of men for chlamydia is favorable. 13 They advocate routine screening of guys who are at increased risk for HIV or syphilis disease. 13
"What's nice about this study is the fact that since we've focused on asymptomatic diseases in women during the past several years, studying the role of asymptomatic diseases in men is a useful addition to our epidemiological data," says Carolyn Deal, PhD, chief of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Branch of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "However, this was a select group, and you also must always be cautious about interpreting information from one group to another for many different reasons."
SOURCES: The Lancet, May 24, 2003. Division of Sexually Transmitted Disease, CDC, Atlanta. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation, April 17, 2001. Gordon Scott, FRCP, consultant in genitourinary medicine, Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, Scotland. Martin Resnick, MD, president, American Urological Association, Baltimore; chairman, department of urology, Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland. Atlantic Highlands, United States Std Test. Carolyn Deal, PhD, chief, Sexually Transmitted Diseases Division, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Md.
Almost half of all women who get chlamydia and aren't treated by a physician will get pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a generic term for infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. PID can cause scarring within the reproductive organs, which could later cause serious complications, including chronic pelvic pain, difficulty becoming pregnant, ectopic (tubal) pregnancy, and other dangerous complications of pregnancy. Std Test closest to Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey. Chlamydia causes 250,000 to 500,000 cases of PID every year in the U.S.
When chlamydia symptoms do appear, they commonly present themselves 1-3 weeks after exposure to the bacteria. For women, symptoms may include an abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning or painful sensation during urination. Women can experience stomach and pelvic pain, fever, nausea, bleeding between periods and pain during sex, in the event the infection spreads. For men, symptoms may include a painful burning sensation during urination, and/or unusual discharge from the penis. For both men and women, symptoms of rectal disease may include bleeding or rectal pain.
Chlamydia can be treated and cured with antibiotics. People infected with chlamydia should abstain from sex for seven days as a way to permit the antibiotics to prevent spreading the bacteria to others and to work. Similarly, your partner should be treated to avoid you becoming re-contaminated. A re-infection of chlamydia is common, particularly when a person's sexual partners haven't been correctly treated. Our doctors recommend that you as well as your partner get re-tested for chlamydia about 21 to 28 days after treatment. This helps ensure the wellbeing of both parties and helps mitigate any potential longterm health complications from the chlamydia bacterium.
A chlamydia infection can have major health consequences if left untreated. Std Test closest to Atlantic Highlands. Untreated illnesses in women may cause chronic pelvic pain and prenatal difficulties. Perennial chlamydia infections may result in serious reproductive issues, including complications during pregnancy and infertility. Furthermore, women exposed to chlamydia have reached a higher danger of getting HIV. For men, an untreated case of chlamydia can spread to other elements of the penis, prostate and testicles and cause pain and inflammation. If not properly treated, chlamydia can also lead to male sterility.
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common species of bacteria of the Chlamydia genus. Reinfection later in life appears common, and a Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been experienced by about 50 percent of Americans aged 20 and older, notes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Most instances of Chlamydia pneumoniae disease cause no symptoms, or cause mild symptoms not recognized as an illness. In certain instances the disease can cause a respiratory illness, occasionally with characteristic clinical manifestations and symptoms.
Cough symptoms, occasionally over a protracted period, may signal a case of bronchitis or pneumonia because of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Those illnesses make up the most frequently recognized ailments associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae, notes Dr. Std test near me Atlantic Highlands. Cho-Chou Kuo, in a 1995 review article in "Clinical Microbiology Review." The cough may be accompanied by temperature symptoms. The symptoms might have a characteristically sub acute beginning, meaning that they begin fairly quickly, but not unexpectedly. Dr. Chou notes that frequently, by the time a patient sees a doctor, the fever symptoms may have already solved. The sicknesses linked with Chlamydia pneumoniae infections are often mild, and people tend to wait longer before seeing a physician following the onset of symptoms than they do with other acute respiratory infections.
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